SIAL China SOUTH 华南国际食品和饮料展览会

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Rowing Upstream in Pandemic - SIAL China South 2021 to debut in Shenzhen
Beijing/Paris 6th Jan. 2021, The SIAL team is pleased to announce its newest event in the SIAL Network, SIAL China South. Taking place in Shenzhen, Greater Bay region, South China, 28-30 October 2021, the event expects to gather 800 exhibitors and 25,000 professional visitors. The new event will bring new opportunities for the food industry in the well-established Southern Chinese market. It is a big step forward for the SIAL China brand especially at this tough pandemic time. After 20+ years of successful operation in Shanghai, the SIAL China trade show has been recognized as the best premium food and beverage show in China, with sound strengths in rich local resources, accountable F&B specialist network and its in-depth understanding of the Chinese market. Motivated by industry recognition, the SIAL China team is confident in delivering another good food and beverage trade show in the second half of the year and in the second largest regional market: South China. The SIAL team is confident to run safely a show in China with a strict application of health measures. The team will stick to government policy evolvement, collecting best practices of event operation in pandemic context, and working closely with the venues on best Safe & Health measures onsite. “At the height of global pandemic recovery, we look forward to leveraging our resources and expertise in the food and beverage market to better serve the needs of the China market in particular, the growing and evolving South China demographics.” said Elaine Chia, the CEO of Comexposium Asia Pacific, the SIAL China show organizer. SIAL China South will take advantage of its location in China’s Greater Bay Area to showcase premium food and beverage products and highlight insights on market trends. The event will match buyers’ needs - including importers and exporters, dealers, wholesale and retailers, supermarkets and comprehensive stores, new retail enterprises, catering enterprises - with the right exhibitors to help their businesses. During the event, alongside the exhibition floor, SIAL China South will also see high-quality activities such as forums, cooking demonstrations and award ceremonies, to name but a few. The team intends to provide a professional trade platform for the food and beverage industry to come together, share information and coordinate actions. All efforts will be made to ensure that SIAL China South becomes the preferred partner of industry stakeholders in South China and region in the coming years. Aiming to be accessible 24/7, SIAL China South will not only be a physical trade show, but will also provide a range of new online content, services and solutions to support trade and commerce, between. The online marketplace, and its integrated matchmaking solution, will enable exhibitors and visitors to make appointments and subsequently “meet” all year around. Furthermore, the Match Me programme will serve as a fruitful place for those who are seeking one-to-one services that best fit their needs. Members will be able to find solutions and expand their presence in international markets with high growth potential. In addition, the SIAL Network plans to support the food industry throughout the year with diverse activities, services and solutions aimed at maximizing access to the Asian food and beverage industry, especially targeting the Chinese market; one of the first economies to recover from the pandemic. SIAL China South in Shenzhen is the first in a series of regional food and beverage events that will be launched over the next 3 years. The objective of these events will be to help global food and beverage companies enter, and further penetrate, the different geographical and seasonal food markets in China. This gives a good extension for the SIAL China flagship show in Shanghai, stretching its value as premium food and beverage trade platform for the Chinese market. Furthermore, SIAL China South is a strong complement to SIAL China in Shanghai, bringing the SIAL brand much closer to buyers in other regions besides East China. According to Mintel, 56% of Chinese urban consumers want to have a happy family life, 46% to pursue a healthy lifestyle, and 39% want to travel after the pandemic ends. Chinese consumers care more about personal health and family health. As a result, food nutrition and quality would be a major consideration for Chinese consumers. Social distancing means people stay longer at home, which is pushing up the demand for snack foods and food ingredients for cooking. The snack food market will reach RMB 3,000 billion Yuan in turnover in 2020. Entering the post-pandemic time, the lower demand in the HoReCa sector would be turned around in China, for example takeaway food seeing 12.5% growth this year. All these imply a great market potential for the premium food and beverage industry in China. In the past few months, the SIAL China team has already agilely captured the market development brought by changing consumer behaviors during the pandemic, adding newly-rising product categories like instant food and prefabricated meals, inviting more buyers from institutional food service units, and setting up an online marketplace to promote more virtual interactions among industry professionals. SIAL China South follow the usual practice of servicing the market by customer insights. About the Food Industry Hub in China’s Greater Bay Area The Greater Bay Area, including the Pearl River Delta, Hong Kong and Macau, offer significant business opportunities for food and beverage companies. With about 70 million inhabitants and market access to 1.4 bn customers in China, the area is positioned for growth. It is expected that the GDP will nearly double over the next 5 years. To help spur this, the Chinese government plans to invest ¥100 bn in Shenzhen to build an International Food Valley, aiming to become the most influential food tech-innovation centre. This is creating an escalating ripple effect for the whole arena, promoting the Shenzhen food industry as an eye-catching global investment hot spot. About Comexposium’s SIAL Network Organised by the Comexposium Group, the SIAL Network is the world’s largest group of food and beverage tradeshows, the regular events (SIAL Paris, SIAL Canada in Montreal and Toronto, SIAL China in Shanghai, SIAL China South in Shenzhen, SIAL India in New Delhi, SIAL Interfood in Jakarta, SIAL Middle East in Abu Dhabi, Gourmet Selection in Paris, and Djazagro in Alger bring together 16,700 exhibitors and 700,000 professionals from 200 countries. SIAL China South is a member of the SIAL Network. About the SIAL Network reach in China Bolstered by SIAL China – Asia’s largest food innovation trade show - SIAL China South will provide a platform for the food and beverage industry to expand on the international stage. As one of the most professional food and beverage industry organisers in South China, the SIAL team is backed by its parent, Comexposium, the 3rd largest event’s organiser, including its resources, experience and global reach. Food and agriculture is one of Comexposium’s largest sectors, underpinned by the SIAL network, and with other notable international brands such as Vinexpo and Salon International de l'Agriculture, and in Asia with the robust regional Zhongmao series of events. Even postponed to September by the pandemic, the 21st SIAL China show, the flagship food and beverage show in China, has attracted 2,200+ exhibitors and 90,763 professionals from more than 23 countries and regions, who enjoyed the meetings, trading, and networking opportunities. On 18-20 May 2021, SIAL China will return to Shanghai New International Expo Centre in Pudong when 4,500 exhibitors and 123,000 professionals will be present at this mega food and beverage trade show. As one of the SIAL China team’s regional tour shows, SIAL China South will draw on the advantages and expertise available in Shenzhen (economy, cross-border trade, catering, technology, etc.) to boost the industry’s trade relations worldwide. More market initiatives will follow in central China and other regional markets. About Comexposium The Comexposium group is a world leader in organising professional and consumer events. It holds 135 B2B and B2B2C events worldwide, covering various sectors of activity, including agri-food, agriculture, construction, fashion, health, distribution, leisure, real estate, security, education, tourism, and works councils. With a presence in more than 30 countries each year, Comexposium welcomes more than 3.5 million visitors and 48,000 exhibitors. Contact us Comexposium Paris [email protected] Comeposium-Sial Exhibition Co., Ltd. [email protected]
2021-04-07 16:07:16
The Greater Bay Area: Integration, Differentiation and Regenerative Ecologies
Written by Thomas Chung June 21, 2020 The relevance of the Greater Bay Area within international geo-political assets is steadily increasing. Relying on projections and observations by Li Shiqiao, Rem Koolhaas and Manuel Castells as main bases for his interpretation of this process, Thomas Chung investigates the future layout that president Xi Jinxing’s project will delineate, involving nine urban areas of the Pearl River Delta and the two Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macao. In order to construct a range of possible futures, the author critically traces the various political turns that affected the Pearl River Delta since the 80s Open Door Policy up to affirming its contemporary role on a global scale. For the 2019 Shenzhen Biennale of Urbanism\Architecture (UABB), titled "Urban Interactions," (21 December 2019-8 March 2020) ArchDaily is working with the curators of the "Eyes of the City" section to stimulate a discussion on how new technologies might impact architecture and urban life. The contribution below is part of a series of scientific essays selected through the “Eyes of the City” call for papers, launched in preparation of the exhibitions: international scholars were asked to send their reflection in reaction to the statement by the curators Carlo Ratti Associati, Politecnico di Torino and SCUT, which you can read here. The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, whose development blueprint was finally released in February 2019 following the Framework Agreement signed in Hong Kong during the SAR’s 20th anniversary in 2017, is nothing less than a political megaproject directed from China’s highest level. After four decades of reform and opening up, the driving force behind this explicit rebranding of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is twofold, to reaffirm the region’s leading role in national economic development and to address both Chinese geopolitics as well as the country’s global ambitions. The Greater Bay Area (GBA), comprising the nine PRD cities plus the two SARs of Hong Kong and Macao, is presented as an extension of “PRD miracle” in a new phase. Began in 1979, the PRD’s market-oriented reform process has transformed the region from an economic backwater to a regional powerhouse of global significance. From gaining notoriety as the “world’s factory” with cheap land and labour churning out low-end consumer products in the 1980s-90s, the PRD has been successively restructured, albeit somewhat unevenly, to be more identified with innovation-driven high-tech manufacturing aspiring to “smart city” developments. With emerging realities such as improved connectivity, rising affluence and mobility and the arrival of “new retail” with a technology-dependent digital economy, the national GBA directive calls for further commitment to regional cooperation while promising ample opportunities for growth. In terms of China’s internal geopolitics, the GBA framework is designed to expedite further reintegration of Hong Kong and Macao with respect to the "one country, two systems" implementation, with an eye on the ultimate resolution of the Taiwan issue. In domestic strategic terms, the GBA also forms the southern tip of five major city-clusters in the shape of a diamond that include the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) on the east coast, the Jingjinji (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) or Greater Beijing capital cluster in the north, as well as two clusters in western and central China, the Cheng-yu cluster based around Chengdu and Chongqing and the Middle Yangtze River Valley Megalopolis centred around Wuhan respectively. The GBA is also targeted to rival or become “greater” than other world-class “bay areas”, and comparisons have often been made with those of San Francisco, New York and Tokyo. The GBA’s competitive advantage lies in its economic momentum and the mega-conurbation having four GaWC classified cities, although its complicated subnational dynamics and various place-based discrepancies are real challenges to be overcome. Externally, the GBA is also expected to playing a key part in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), China’s cross-continent “infrastructure and trade as foreign policy” programme aimed at augmenting its international influence. As a top-down strategy tied to national and global political economy, the “Greater Bay Area”’s more abstract appellation suggests images of bays, port cities and near-shore islands with a maritime propensity, subconsciously emphasising a more unifying intention and international outlook. Whereas “Pearl River Delta”, whose post-war coining in 1947 was based on empirical geographical research, resonates more with its estuarine roots and geo-cultural legacies, evoking the region’s rich and diverse local histories. Interestingly, the meticulous Chinese scholars responsible for the PRD naming remarked that the technical term “Bay-head delta” also correctly described the region’s geography. In 1985, the PRD was officially delimited to attract foreign investment, after which industrial relocation from coastal Hong Kong accelerated the growth of labour-intensive light industries inland. This inaugurated the early success of the “front shop, back factory” cooperation model whereby colonial Hong Kong fronted the overseas exports that was backed up by cheap PRD production. By the mid-1990s, as the PRD developed into a more formalised 9-city economic region subjected to strategic planning, there was a shift towards heavier industries such as high-tech electronic equipment and machinery for export. The PRD’s post-reform urban evolution also came into view of the Western gaze. Rem Koolhaas, maverick architect-cum-theorist, was one of the first to call attention to the PRD’s “unbelievable quantities of new urban substance”, describing what he saw as an “important” city-prototype whose importance rested on attributes alien to Western measurements of culture and history. Assisted by his students at Harvard, Koolhaas documented pertinent aspects of this so-called COED (City of Exacerbated Difference) in Great Leap Forward. He predicted that these disparate urban parts would eventually become a formidable entity operating within a market economy under communist state control, a new urban condition that might irrevocably alter the notion of “city” per se. In 1996, eminent sociologist Manuel Castells, who had already worked on the PRD, wrote in The Rise of the Network City that this vaguely perceived southern China metropolis would become “the most representative urban face of the 21st century” . Whereas Koolhaas’ eastward gaze of revelatory wonderment was partly predicated on an iconoclastic refutation of the abstract ordering of the Western city, Castells identified the PRD’s emergent spatial logic as evidencing the emergence of a “network society” that is based on a globalized economy and information society. With his prescient research, Castell’s theorizing of the now-familiar “space of flows” prefigured the mega-urban futures, and even foreseeing problems such as large scale epidemics and probable disintegration of social control in these mega-city configurations that we are seeing today. Within the discourse on regional planning and mega-city positioning, the PRD’s spatial structure has been contoured and realigned according to changing administrative boundaries, economic productivity and infrastructural connectivity. In the early 2000s, Chinese scholars began using the term “Greater Pearl River Delta” (GPRD) the describe the 9 + 2 city agglomeration that encompassed posthandover Hong Kong and Macao. The GPRD was conceptualized as a series of lesser cities as industrial nodes with specialist functions clustering around two prominent cores - Guangzhou, the provincial capital and historical “big brother”, and Shenzhen, the young dynamic upstart next to Hong Kong created by direct order from central government. In 2003, Guangdong province advocated the idea of “Pan-PRD” as an even more extensive regional construct that comprised nine neighbouring provinces to promote economic co-operation In contrast, Li Shiqiao’s erudite and intensive understanding of the Chinese city and its ancient agro-intellectual traditions describes how, by insisting on returning to its indigenous spatial conceptions, Chinese cities continue to adapt to the necessities of contemporary culture or international commerce. Perhaps taking the cue from Koolhaas’ observations, Li asserts that unlike the Western heritage of representational ordering via proportion, the Chinese city is produced via an alternative “quantity regulation” of things, information, politics and buildings, etc, whose meanings are conveyed through “distributed material orders”, giving rise to cities of immense complexity. For Li, such is the hidden continuity between vastly different examples such as the Forbidden City and Hong Kong. Given time, Li argues, archetypal specificities of the Chinese city have the capacity to reformulate themselves into “effective strategies under radically different geopolitical conditions”, bringing substance and detail to ongoing massive urbanisation processes such as the GBA. Official visions imagine a better connected, functionally integrated GBA with a growing innovation-driven economy in emerging industries, R&D and high-end sectors. Inter-city collaboration and cross-border cooperation are increasingly encouraged via formal mechanisms for joint developments, while logistics sharing and infrastructure upgrades with high-level coordination have been implemented. From an essential three-hour travel outer ring to an inner “one-hour living zone” with improved liveability, all this will facilitate intra-bay mobility of people, goods and information. Incentives to attract investment, support enterprises and to enlarge workforce and talent pool all dovetail towards the state-driven desire for mega-urban integration. Even the notion of “Bay citizen” has been floated to speculate on a trans-urban collective identity and social consciousness founded on the common roots of Lingnan culture. In reality, layers of administrative boundaries and political borders point to continuing institutional, economic and social differences. The first special economic zones (SEZs) established back in 1979, starting with Shenzhen next to Hong Kong and Zhuhai adjacent Macao, were pioneering experiments devised to exploit capability differentials in order to generate interaction and reciprocal flows [18]. These territories of exception designated for accelerated economic growth operated on controlled foreign imports, tax and financial concessions, and were matched with skilled labour and resources. In particular, Shenzhen’s impressive flourishing testifies to the value of such enclaves in stimulating development and progress. Before “Shenzhen speed” became the catchphrase for China’s rapid urbanization however, it was Shekou port at the western tip of Shenzhen that spearheaded the very first industrial and modernizing reforms. More recently created free trade zones, Qianhai in Shenzhen west, Nansha in Guangzhou south and Hengqin in Zhuhai, are similar attempts intended to boost their respective mother cities. Qianhai, with a Field Operations masterplan design, is planned as Shenzhen’s new international centre for finance, cross-border e-commerce and professional services. Hengqin, facing Macao, is themed for leisure tourism, education and cultural services. Nansha, centrally located in PRD and already with its developed industrial and port facilities through Hong Kong investment, has many labels, among them shipping, high-tech industries, innovative development and quality living. The GBA outline encourages these strategically sited concessional zones to forge new development models and institutional mechanisms, demonstrate further open up to Hong Kong and Macao enterprises and target better integration with international practices, though their eventual contribution or success can only be properly assessed upon further maturation. In fact, economic and politico-ideological differences between Hong Kong (and to a lesser extent Macao) and mainland China have been the fountainhead of the Open Door Policy that triggered the formalization of the PRD. To date, Hong Kong’s prized attributes remain as its unrivalled international orientation, pivotal regional role in global finance and robust economy, sophisticated judiciary and administrative systems, free flow of information, people and capital, transparent institutions and highly developed professional services. With the GBA initiative, Hong Kong is urged to build on its distinctive advantages and reinvent itself while expanding its horizons into the PRD hinterland. A local think tank recommended the city to create new niches, explore new industries and discover new geographies. Recommendations include acting as internationalization incubators or a neutral global data hub (a “data Switzerland”, providing advanced financial, professional and consumer services, fostering understanding by creating cross-jurisdictional institutions and intensifying interaction by setting up precincts with “Hong Kong style” live-work micro-environments and public services near transport nodes to entice Hong Kongers. While Macao has mutated into a spectacularly lucrative gambling destination embellished with world heritage, Hong Kong has in recent years developed into a politically fraught global financial hub. Its systemic disparities, exacerbated by social inequities and internal polarizations, are proving to be intensely challenging, and especially manifest in the widespread and sustained social unrest in the latter half of 2019. Despite enhanced connectivity with the GBA, such as the completion of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao bridge and the Express Rail Link arriving into West Kowloon, Hong Kong’s deep-rooted discord ultimately hinges on fundamental questions of identity and governance. Although local contesting voices on integration versus differentiation have been profoundly unsettling, Hong Kong’s super-charged irresolution involving the entire citizenry is being thoroughly played out in the city’s public domains, which may yet engender deliberative possibilities of genuine social renovation that mediates between appropriate autonomies and collective inter-dependencies, ones that could have wider ramifications for the rest of the GBA. Many mainland researchers still regard the GBA as a global-level experiment in region-building under the twin trajectories of economic progress and national integration. Hardware improvements (such as new connections like the Shenzhen-Zhongshan bridge, port extensions and new special cooperation zones, etc) go hand-in-hand with the earnest pursuit of GDP-oriented benchmarks for the construction of an economic “super region” of global influence. With improved transportation reducing the effect of boundaries, the GBA’s industrial clusters are expected to replace cities as the basic units of global competition. Uneven social conditions between cities are to be overcome via long term planning, coordinated development and growth management. In terms of regional restructuring, the GBA has transitioned from a simple “hub-and-spoke” model (front shop, back factory mode) to a polycentric network or “constellation” of four prominent cores connected to seven lesser nodes. The GBA’s bay-head delta geography is creating an “inner ring” (Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Dongguan up to Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhongshan and down to Zhuhai and Macao) that is heavily invested, highly connected and more developed with advanced urban functions, and an “outer ring” (Huizhou, Jiangmen, Zhaoqing) acting as supply hinterland with heavier industries and taking spillovers radiating out from the inner ring cities. The three PRD city clusters – Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing (GFZ); Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou (SDH) and Zhuhai, Zhongshan, Jiangmen (ZJJ) – are formed to intensify cooperation and interaction, pool resources and raise competitiveness, although collaborations have had varied success. The Guangzhou-Foshan integration has been most notable, with joint mass transit, planning, and development programmes for adjacent areas implemented. Shenzhen has been working with neighbouring Dongguan and Huizhou to relocate companies and industries there so as to accommodate higher value operations itself, while Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Jiangmen will be less active until the western GBA further develops. More nuanced views recognize the need to deepen institutional innovation and recalibrate governance structures to balance state, provincial and municipal interests. More dialogue and negotiation as well as wider participation by enterprises and sections of society should be enabled. Instead of over-relying on more hit-and-miss city-level collaborations, there should be effective higher-level interventions with adequate openness that also allow market forces to inform organic integration. To minimize rivalries and avoid overlapping investment and vicious competition, macro policies and procedures that are conducive to the spirit of cooperation should be set up to coordinate the sharing of benefits and responsibilities; while micro projects and incentives that play to the advantages and practical needs of each city should be introduced. More exchange and cooperation platforms with Hong Kong and Macao should be realized both to counter the mainland’s impression of favouritism towards the two SARs, as well as allay the SARs’ fear of losing their distinctive ways of life. The current GBA population of 70 million is already double that of Koolhaas’ prediction for 2020. It is expected to double again to 150 million within the next 20 years. If Castells’ caution not to compare the PRD to other examples abroad (such as the San Francisco Bay Area) due to its specific contextualities is to be heeded, then the GBA needs to develop along its own strengths by nurturing complementary differences within. A viable multi-level institution-building process that reconciles competing values and systems, institutes checks and balances, rewards and penalties and guards against resources and environmental over-exploitation is called for. The outdated “PRD pattern” of municipality-based metabolisms heavy on resource input, environmental cost and unfettered consumption must give way to region-based, energy-conscious and climate-inspired ecologies fitting to the resource resilience and environmental carrying capacities of individual cities. The impetus for developing trade, industries, technology and transportation must be coupled with aspirations to nurture a more enlightened quality of life, cultural inclusivity, intellectual openness and ecological protection. Here we return to Li’s understanding of the intellectual foundations of the Chinese city for conceiving alternative urban imaginaries. Instead of the endless production of artificial pleasures and consumption of desirable things, the Chinese city, which “maintains a closer intellectual link with labour and things” and attunement to the biological rhythms of life, may offer a genuine “reformulation of the conception of good life in the context of a renewed understanding of the (situated) freedoms and the rights of humans and things”. If the GBA is to be regarded as the 21st-century face of mega-urbanism in this age of climate change, two natural analogies of regenerative ecologies may be relevant. First, the rainforest morphology’s potential as a urban model lies in its complex global morphology with varied microclimates that supports symbiotic diversity and indeterminacies of life-forms and cycles. A rainforest city is a super-organism with an internally-regulated metabolic process, whereby the negotiation of climate with the finely tuned coordination of nested loops of energy, matter and information flows inform distribution patterns, height differentiations and density gradients to produce a “heterogeneous landscape of emergent interactions within a homeostatic environment”. Second, the PRD’s once celebrated dyke-pond aquaculture of fish, vegetable, fruit and silk cultivation fused the delta’s fertile floodplain tidal ecology with a thriving productive landscape that underlay the economic culture for the region’s past prosperity. The idea of “catalytic polyculture”, the practice of designed mutualism that nurtures unexpected economies and change cultural behaviours, could be an integral part of responsibly developing the GBA’s rural-urban continuum to produce an adaptable, scalable hybrid ecology of humans, things and the natural world. Perhaps the GBA is where subtropical rainforest cities meet polyculture landscape to become estuary mega-urbanism, a confluence of complex systems with homeostatic periodicities comprising archipelagoes of islands and ports, ponds and dykes, whereby interactions and flows traversing its infrastructures will be energized at its cores and replenished by its nodes and edges, all integrated as a differentiated continuum of regenerative ecologies enlivened by the successive emergence of new economic, social and cultural realities. Research support: Wu Fangning
2021-01-14 09:38:43
Is the Greater Bay Area China’s Future?
It’s possible, but both opportunities and challenges remain in coming years By Dingding Chen and Tiffany Chen In recent decades, in addition to the famous Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), China has aimed to reshape the Pearl River Delta, which includes Hong Kong, Macao, and nine cities in Guangdong province. The goal was to create one economic entity called the Greater Bay Area. According to the Development Outline published by the State Council of China on February 18, 2019, the Greater Bay Area will represent China in industrial competitions worldwide and provide opportunities for internal economic transformations. This ambitious plan soon caught the attention of the rest of the world. Some, like the BBC, which calls the Greater Bay Area plan “ambitious but vague,” noticed the vastness of China’s new plan — aimed at “spurring the economy” — and yet question whether it can truly achieve its goals. Others, looking at the region’s industries and finances wonder if it truly can compete with Silicon Valley, the other Bay Area, someday. While recognizing the Greater Bay Area’s potential, some such as the Washington Post detected Beijing’s integration attempt on Hong Kong, as the Bay Area plan connects Hong Kong and mainland China through infrastructure projects and criticized the “steady rollback of political freedoms.” Even Chen Guanghan, a professor from Sun Yatsen University’s Research Institute of the Development of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, commented that the “vision of the Greater Bay Area is far more than just a bridge or a railway. No country has ever tried something like this before, merging different tax and customs and legal systems.” In other words, the reaction of the international community toward the Greater Bay Area remains uncertain. Most are still waiting and seeing whether if China truly can pull off such an aggressive economic plan and merge the region into one. Indeed, the Greater Bay Area has its unique advantages and the characteristics to be a world-class player, especially considering its population and size. For instance, while the San Francisco Bay Area has a population of 7.8 million, the New York city metropolitan area 20 million, and the Tokyo Bay Area 44 million, the Greater Bay Area boasts a population of 69.5 million. Furthermore, its size of 55 thousand square kilometers also stands out while compared to the New York city metropolitan area’s 21 thousand sq. km, the San Francisco Bay area’s 18 thousand sq. km, and the Tokyo metropolitan area’s 13.6 sq. km. And while its relatively low GDP per capita also exposed its weaknesses and the lack of economic efficiency when contrasted with the other 3 areas, on the other hand, this insufficiency also hints at the region’s huge potential for growth. But the true advantage of the Greater Bay Area rests not in its size or scale. After detailed analysis, one can easily detect that New York is indeed a financial region: for instance, 14 of the 22 world top 500 enterprises in this area are financial and insurance companies. On the other hand, the San Francisco Bay Area gained its name as a technology leader due to the well-known Silicon valley and the huge profits its tech companies bring. There is some diversity in representation of the Tokyo Bay Area, consisting of strong manufacturing industries covering steel, chemicals, semiconductors, automotive, electronics, and so on. But unlike its competitors who all had distinct characteristics of their own, the Greater Bay Area has achieved a rare balance in its industrial structure development. 20 of the world’s top 500 companies are based there and includes almost all major sectors of the modern industrial system, such as automobiles, home appliances, real estate, internet, and finance. In other words, the diversity of industry sectors present in the Greater Bay Area allows it to compete in multiple sectors on a world-class level. Hong Kong’s financial influence can rival New York, while Shenzhen’s tech enterprises and internet companies such as Tencent, DJI, Huawei, and ZTE can slowly grow into strong competitors of the members of the Silicon Valley. Guangzhou’s auto industry and the appliance industries in Zhuhai and Foshan are also forcing their counterparts in Tokyo to move further upstream of the industry. Last but not least, Macao offers the best tourism and gaming services in the Eastern Hemisphere, not only perfectly addressing the entertainment needs within the area, but also attracting capital flows from all East Asia. Undoubtedly, this type of industrial division helps foster deep and frequent cross-integration within the Greater Bay Area, leading to the birth of more new technologies and products, which, in return, establishes unique advantages in seizing the emerging industries in the future, such as artificial intelligence, intelligent manufacturing, and the Internet of things. Nevertheless, despite its advantages, the Greater Bay Area also faces various challenges. While the Bay area has achieved world-class competitiveness at these levels, it cannot hide the embarrassment of lacking core technologies, specifically in the area of semiconductors. U.S. sanctions on ZTE in 2018 almost drove China’s leading telecommunications company to the brink of collapse and exposed China’s weakness in semiconductors and chips. If China cannot make a breakthrough, the survival of tech manufacturing industry in the Greater Bay Area, or the entire country, will depend on foreign companies. Fortunately, efforts are under way and bearing fruit. 5G chips designed by Huawei’s Hisilicon company are said to be as capable as similar products from Qualcomm. And in terms of chip manufacturing, Guangzhou has also broken ground on two fabs and foundries successively. In addition, the Greater Bay Area will have to counter the challenge of regional administrative barriers. Within the geographical scope of the narrow Bay Area, every city cannot help but face fierce internal competition in order to obtain more resources and economic advantages, which will lead to inefficient allocation of resources. Twenty years ago, in order to connect the pearl river delta, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and the west bank of Macao, the region spent $20 billion and 10 years to build the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, connecting Hong Kong, Macao, and Zhuhai, while the densely populated and economic competitive Shenzhen was left out. Now, they have to build a separate bridge linking Shenzhen to the opposite bank, which, due to its impact on Guangzhou’s ports and shipping routes, might face endless delays. Overall, the internal competition in this region will never cease. Last but not least, just as the Washington Post mentioned, the Greater Bay Area will also have to face the striking differences in administrative and value systems between Hong Kong, Macao, and Mainland China. Even though the development plan of Greater Bay Area aims at eliminating the differences between both parties to a certain extent, the recent protests and demonstrations in Hong Kong have clearly showed that no matter the geographic distance, the more international and “western” Hong Kong seemed to have a hard time integrating into Mainland China. In the short term, neither Hong Kong nor China will find the key to solving this dilemma. Just as it hopes to gain more advantages and say in international trade through the BRI, the planning of the Greater Bay Area also leaves hopes that China will gain a higher position in the international industrial chain. Whether it can overcome the many challenges that still exists will become the key to the realization of this hope.
2021-01-14 09:35:11
German enterprises help city pave its path to prosperity
By Yuan Shenggao | China Daily In February, German company Multivac, one of the leading global providers of packaging solutions for food, life science and healthcare products, set up its first research and manufacturing base in China in Taicang of eastern Jiangsu province.   The county-level city has attracted more than 300 German companies so far, and they have invested an aggregate of $4.5 billion, producing more than 50 billion yuan ($7.5 billion) industrial output annually, to make it a successful model for Sino-German cooperation, official figures show.   The cooperation laid its roots in 1993, when Kern-Liebers, a leading global maker of highly complex strip and wire parts and assemblies, became the first German company to make a small investment, thereby testing the Taicang market.   Executives of the company were soon impressed by the friendly and efficient government of Taicang as well as the livable environment, and they started to increase their investment. A number of German big names, including Schaeffler and Siemens, came later.   The official figures indicate that it took 14 years for the city to attract the settlement of the first 100 German companies, another six years for the second batch of 100, and just five years for the third batch. The presence of German companies has attracted and nurtured more than 400 local private companies to provide supporting manufacturing and services, which keep growing with these German companies and upgrading their facilities and management to be smarter, more automatic and digitalized.   Over the years, the city has attached much more importance to luring German companies with fame and influence in the global industry and that are representatives of Industry 4.0, as well as manufacturing leaders of a large enough scale to have an impact on the local industry in Taicang, government officials said.   "We are taking every strategic opportunity arising from the integration of Chinese manufacturing with Industry 4.0 of Germany," said Shen Mi, Party secretary of Taicang.   The German companies in Taicang provided Industry 4.0 samples for the local companies to follow. In return, the local manufacturers provide better support and services to the German company, forming a healthy industrial development environment.   In 2018, the Taicang government's investment in technical improvement rose 3.6 percent year-on-year to meet the rising demand for intelligent manufacturing.   So far, the city has developed 21 demonstrative smart workshops at city and province levels - which should meet a series of strict requirements for automation and intelligentized innovation, such as smart equipment, interconnection of different equipment, real-time scheduling and automatic materials distribution. They are followed by a big number of local small manufacturers.   In addition, the city introduced a dual education system from Germany to train talent and quench the manufacturing industry's thirst for skillful workers. The system combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course.   So far, the local government, which has played a leading role in the training system and encouraging the participation of private educational companies, has set up nine such training bases. They can provide multi-tier talent from graduates of secondary specialized schools and junior colleges to undergraduates.   Meanwhile, scientific institutes in Taicang, such as the branches of the Institute of Computing Technology of Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, also trained a pool of talents in the sectors of intelligent equipment, electric automation, industrial control, software and integrated circuits.   Shen said it remains an important development strategy of the city to strengthen cooperation with Germany, adding that city will carry out more innovative and industrial cooperation with German companies, enhance the exchanges with German cities and further deepen the reform and opening-up.   Matthias Mueller, general manger of Taicang German Center, a nonprofit organization that aims to help German businesses, especially small and medium-sized enterprises investing overseas, said the communication with Taicang government is very smooth, just like that in a big family. Both sides look for help and support from each other when encountering problems, he noted.   In 2016, Bayerische Landesbank set up a German Centre for Industry and Trade in Taicang, the eighth of its kind globally and the third in China, following Beijing and Shanghai.   "Taicang is the only city that attracts so many German companies in China," said Mueller, mentioning that all other seven German Centers were set up in capital cities or major economic areas.   He said that the convenient traffic, the favorable policies, fund support and the livable environment would continue to make Taicang a popular place for German companies.   [News Resource:]
2021-01-14 09:32:58
City Logistics: With Electricity, Gas and Muscle Strength
Vehicle manufacturers, renters and logistics companies already offer many practical solutions for clean and efficient city delivery. The search for solutions to city logistics is not just about the protection of the environment and health, but also economic interests play an important role such as the gain of market shares and customer loyalty in the search for greater sustainability. That is good news for the people in the cities, because if economic and environmental objectives match, that accelerates research for new concepts substantially. Smarter and at full capacity to the customer "Increasing traffic density not only results in higher pollutant loads, but also in the detriment of our punctuality and consequently angers our customers", Christian Drenthen, Executive Board Member of Global Land Transport at Schenker AG, explained as an example. Therefore, his company bets on concepts that “bring us faster, more efficiently and smarter to customers and reduce traffic, noise and exhaust fumes in the cities at the same time.” This includes cargo bikes and trucks with alternative drives, and Mr. Schenker also tries "to optimize traffic flows intelligently and digitally with platooning or by testing fully automatic trucks.” However, the largest short- to medium-term effect is achieved thanks to the constantly improved utilization of the fleets with efficient route control with the smallest number possible of unladen trips. Precise concepts DHL is developing sustainable city logistics concepts in collaboration with local communities. "From the CO2-free delivery with our street scooter in entire inner cities to deliver via micro-depot and cargo bikes in individual city districts, we are customizing our solutions to individual conditions on site and developing our offer continuously," Marc Ruffler explained, who is responsible as "Head of Operations" for the operational business at Deutsche Post DHL Group. The parcel service provider Hermes wants to deliver emission-free with the mobility concept "Urban Blue” in 80 major German cities by 2025 and is focusing on a partnership with Mercedes Benz Vans. "In the next few years, we want deploy 1,500 eVito and eSprinter e-transporters on German roads," Michael Peuker explained as Sustainability Manager at Hermes Germany. In addition, his company is testing “alternative delivery by cargo bike in cities such as Berlin and Hamburg and by an electric light vehicle in the Munich area.” The 15,000 parcel shops in Germany would also contribute to reducing emissions significantly, and the creation of secure storage locations will be promoted. Trucks: heavy – and clean Manufacturers are offering a growing range of vehicles with alternative drives. For example, Daimler also offers also a heavy, battery-powered delivery truck for urban areas in addition to the electrified variants of Vito and Sprinter. “We have already advanced far beyond the theoretical phase and prototypes. Since September 2018, the eActros has been in practical use on the road with customers throughout Germany,” Stefan Buchner reported, Head of Mercedes-Benz Trucks. The participating customers all distribute goods in city traffic, but in completely different sectors and categories. "We want to collect comprehensive insights with this. Our goal is to achieve emission-free and quiet driving in cities locally even with heavy, series-produced trucks starting from the year 2021.” The commercial vehicle renter PEMA is already offering this option in the current year. From the second half of the year, the company located in Herzberg, Germany, will deliver the first completely emission-free 16-ton Volvo FL Electric to its customers with a range of up to 300 kilometers. This will make it possible for fleet operators to use electric mobility without an investment risk. However, PEMA also has other alternative drive systems in its product range. For example, "Our customers can choose between LNG Drive and Dual Fuel System," PEMA Managing Director Peter Ström explained. The dual fuel system is based on metering gas in the intake tract and reduces diesel consumption. Mr. Ström sees good opportunities for the LNG Drive for city logistics with fixed tours. "Fuel stops can be planned well in the area of city logistics as well as in intra-company transportation and line operations. As a result, the very sparse network of filling stations for LNG hardly plays a role.” [News Resource:]
2021-01-14 09:32:52
Global AI innovation competition kicks off in Shanghai
By Liu Zhihua | Hangzhou Yitu Healthcare Technology Co Ltd is officially declared the 2019 Artificial Intelligence World Innovation Competition's major technical cooperation partner in Shanghai on Thursday. [Photo provided to] The 2019 Artificial Intelligence World Innovation Competition, part of the World Artificial Intelligence Conference that assembles top AI scientists, enterprises and government officials, officially kicked off in Shanghai on Thursday. During the opening ceremony, Hangzhou Yitu Healthcare Technology Co Ltd was officially declared the competition's major technical cooperation partner. It will provide expertise support for candidate review as well as help in organizing the competition. At the same time, candidate selection for the competition's Super AI Leader award also started. The award will be granted to innovative, advanced and influential AI applications, service and products, and frontier research projects. One project of Yitu Tech, the parent company, won last year's Super AI Leader award. [News Resource:]
2021-01-14 09:32:43
Social Infrastructure - The next opportunity in the Greater Bay Area
This article was written by Sam Farrands and Ashley Phelps The most significant Belt & Road Project, the Greater Bay Area Initiative is the central government’s plan to link the cities of Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Foshan, Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huizhou, Jiangmen and Zhaoqing into an integrated economic hub.  The current population of the Greater Bar Area is approximately 68 million people with a combined GDP of over US$1.3 trillion.  By 2030 it is forecast to grow to 86 million, with GDP expected to exceed US$4.6 trillion. By way of comparison set out below are the current population and GDP numbers for long-established economic hubs: Location Population GDP Greater Tokyo 44 million US$1.8 trillion San Francisco Bay 7.6 million US$0.8 trillion New York City 8.6 million US$1.7 trillion Transport Infrastructure To encourage this growth, significant investment is being made to link the cities in the Greater Bay Area, including the development of road, rail, seaport and airport infrastructure such as: · the Hong Kong – Zhuhai – Macau Bridge, which will reduce travel times[1] between Hong Kong and: · Zhuhai, from 60+ minutes to 40 minutes; and · Macau, from approximately 60 minutes to 40 minutes; · the Guangzhou – Hong Kong Express Rail Link (Hong Kong section), which will reduce travel times[2]between Hong Kong and: · Guangzhou (south), from 2+ hours to 48 minutes; and · Shenzhen, from 65+ minutes to 23 minutes; · the Humen Bridge No. II; · the Shenzhen to Zhongshan Bridge; · the Macau – Zhuhai new border crossing facility. The above list is only a small sample of the many transport infrastructure projects that are being, or will be, undertaken as part of the Greater Bay Area Initiative. Social Infrastructure – the interesting opportunity As the benefits from the integration of the region are realized and as the region grows in both population numbers and wealth, there will be an increasing demand for social infrastructure, such as entertainment, sports and recreation facilities.  Although Hong Kong and Macau have a head start in terms of existing social infrastructure, in order to satisfy the increasing demand of the domestic population and the growing tourist visitor numbers, significant investment will be necessary to improve the existing, and develop new, infrastructure and bring the major cities in the Greater Bay Area up to a comparable level. The scale of the social infrastructure demands in the Greater Bay Area and the speed at which those infrastructure needs will be met is at a level that reflects China’s rapid pace of development.  Below are examples of the categories of social infrastructure and the development opportunities that exist. Sports The Chinese Government has an aggressive plan to grow the sports industry to an RMB7 trillion industry by 2025[3], with the Guangdong sports industry to reach RMB900 billion by 2025[4]. To achieve these goals ambitious targets have been proposed, including the development of a major community sports park in every city in Guangdong by 2025 and 3,000 new soccer pitches by 2020[5].  In addition the Hong Kong Government proposes HK$20 billion of investment in community sports facilities by 2022[6]. Convention / Exhibition space In 2016 Hong Kong held more conference / exhibition meetings than any other city in the Greater Bay Area.  However, in the Asia Pacific region Hong Kong was ranked fifth overall in terms of number of conference / exhibition meetings held.  Macau was ranked 17th, Guangzhou 37th and Shenzhen 51st[7]. As the Greater Bay Area becomes increasingly connected as an economic hub there will be opportunities for significant investment in conference / exhibition infrastructure.  In Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Shenzhen alone exhibition space is expected to grow to over 1,400,000 square meters in the 2020s from the existing combined space of approximately 800,000 square meters[8]. Cultural Centres The Greater Bay Area has no museums that are ranked within the top 20 globally and only one museum ranked within the top 20 in Asia Pacific region.  As part of the Greater Bay Area positioning itself as a global hub, in competition with other developed hubs, it is expected that investment in all types of cultural centres, including museums, will be a focus of the government. Amusement Parks In 2016 Hong Kong had the 17th and 18th most visited amusement parks in the World, while Guangzhou had the most visited water park in the World[9]. There is already significant demand for amusement parks in the region, which demand is forecast to increase with the development of the Greater Bay Area.  To meet this demand additional facilities will be required in addition to the following expansions that are already planned: · a new water park at Ocean Park – this is expected in 2018 / 2019 and has an anticipated investment of HK$2.9 billion; · a new hotel at Ocean Park in 2017 with an anticipated investment of HK$4.1 billion; · Disneyland Phase 1 development expansion, with an anticipated investment of HK$11 billion; and · four new Chimelong theme parks in Zhuhai with a total investment of RMB50 billion investment. Who will benefit? The demand for all manner of social infrastructure in the Greater Bay Area presents significant opportunity for developers, EPC contractors, operators and maintenance contractors.  However, this infrastructure does not exist in a vacuum and increased development of social infrastructure will have a multiplier effect on other infrastructure needs and will present opportunities to investors in many industries, including: · hotel developers and operators to meet increased demand from tourists and convention / exhibition attendees; · stadium operators; · food and beverage providers; · retail developers and operators to take advantage of the increased visitors to the region; · tourist service providers; and · events management companies. The increased connectivity and integration of the Greater Bay Area will make it easier for investors, contractors and other goods and services providers active in the region to take advantage of these new opportunities.
2021-01-14 09:32:34
One year on, HK, Macao benefit steadily from Greater Bay Area
By Xinhua This undated photo shows a night view of Zhuhai, a Guangdong province city in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area city cluster. (PHOTO / CHINA DAILY) HONG KONG - One year ago, China unveiled a master plan to develop its southern bay area into a world-class city cluster, a global technology and innovation center, and a livable and business-friendly area. With a string of follow-up measures put in place since then, the bay area, officially known as the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, witnessed steady development. Cities in the bay area have built increasingly closer ties with each other and achieved much easier flows of talent, goods and capital. New vitality has been injected into the bay area with a total area of 56,000 square km, a population of about 70 million, and an economy of 10 trillion Chinese yuan (US$1.43 trillion). With more emerging growth opportunities, the Greater Bay Area is looking forward to an even brighter future, observers said. ALSO READ: HK, Macao join hands to tap opportunities of Greater Bay Area IMPROVING INTEGRATION Shortly after the unveiling of the plan, the Chinese government rolled out specific measures in the coming month in an effort to turn the blueprint into reality. Tax concessions for Hong Kong and Macao people working on mainland cities of the Greater Bay Area were announced in March, among others. Eight months later, more favorable policies were hammered out, such as encouraging those people to purchase properties on nine mainland cities and granting their children equal education there. Such measures designed to make it easier for people to work across the Greater Bay Area are key to talent mobility, KPMG China's Hong Kong partner Maggie Lee said. "The policies have created tangible benefits for Hong Kong businesses and residents." Major infrastructure projects including the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge and the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link also started operation, which allowed dwellers of the Greater Bay Area to easily travel from one city to another. The transport network has become so convenient that it is even possible to take morning tea in Guangzhou, do business in Hong Kong in the afternoon, and enjoy night view in Macao. Experts said the improvement in connectivity is significant to further unlocking the economic potential of the Greater Bay Area, pushing forward integrated development, and bolstering the confidence of businesses in the future of the Greater Bay Area. BUSINESSES SPEED UP EXPANSION A survey jointly conducted by KPMG China, HSBC and the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce (HKGCC) showed in January that 747 executives of businesses in the Greater Bay Area are bullish about both their own and the region's prospects, and most of them are planning to expand to other cities in the area. Union Medical Healthcare (UMH), a non-hospital medical services provider, has given a priority to the Greater Bay Area in its development strategy. "We are focusing on areas within one-hour travel distance of Hong Kong, where we can tap into potential markets efficiently," said UMH CEO Eddy Tang. "With rapidly-growing GDP of the Greater Bay Area, the health care market there boasts the enormous potential to see booming growth in the future." The company, currently owning 10 outlets in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, plans to open 30 to 50 more clinics in the mainland in three to five years, mainly in the Greater Bay Area outside Hong Kong. "We are focusing on areas within one-hour travel distance of Hong Kong, where we can tap into potential markets efficiently," said UMH CEO Eddy Tang. "With rapidly-growing GDP of the Greater Bay Area, the health care market there boasts the enormous potential to see booming growth in the future." The company, currently owning 10 outlets in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, plans to open 30 to 50 more clinics in the mainland in three to five years, mainly in the Greater Bay Area outside Hong Kong. KPMG China's Lee said firms have become increasingly interested and involved in the Greater Bay Area. In Hong Kong alone, 96 percent of respondent businesses express confidence in the Greater Bay Area and expect their business revenue will grow, a survey showed. To capitalize on the opportunities, more than half of the businesses either have made a strategic plan or are in the process of formulating one. OPPORTUNITIES TO SEIZE Terence Chiu, HSBC's Hong Kong head of commercial banking, expressed strong optimism about the plan on the Greater Bay Area as enormous opportunities will be generated for businesses from the coordinated development of Hong Kong, Macao and nine cities in Guangdong province. During the past year, the HKGCC has organized a series of seminars and business tours to discuss and explore the opportunities of the Greater Bay Area, which were in particular welcomed by small and medium-sized enterprises. "The bay area is one of the few places where businesses can expand their presence and seek higher returns over the next few years," Yu Pang-chun with the HKGCC said, stressing that it has the potential to become the most important opportunity for businesses and reshape Hong Kong's business environment for decades to come. Yu said companies should not hesitate to enter the Greater Bay Area market. "They should act now in case of missing the chance even if they may not be 100 percent sure that they can seize it." Commerce, trade and reinvention have always been at the heart of Hong Kong’s success. Just as important is the city’s trusted position in the international marketplace, and the important role it continues to play as China increasingly opens up to foreign investment and pursues further globalisation. This provides Hong Kong with a significant opportunity to maximise the benefits from the Greater Bay Area (GBA) Initiative, which aims to economically integrate Hong Kong, Macau and the nine cities in Guangdong’s Pearl River Delta, and to create a globally competitive business region. With a population of more than 69 million and a total GDP of USD 1.53 trillion (similar to that of Russia and slightly larger than Australia), the continued development of the GBA offers Hong Kong an opportunity to leverage and scale its strengths and competitive advantages. For example, Hong Kong’s role as an international finance centre and offshore RMB hub leaves it well- placed to be at the centre of investment, financing, deal and venture capital activity. In addition, the city can be at the forefront of the development of the GBA as a technology and innovation hub by helping to create the funding ecosystem that is essential to fostering innovation and entrepreneurship, as well as greater business-to-business engagement and collaboration. The key to Hong Kong’s continued economic success will be the preservation and extension of its economic freedoms, the rule of law and an independent judiciary, its favourable tax environment and the overall ease of conducting business in the city. Such significant advantages can be preserved under the principle of “one country, two systems”, while at the same time embracing the commercial potential of greater collaboration within the GBA – these goals are not mutually exclusive. As one of the world’s freest economies, business has always played a central part in Hong Kong’s success. Australia’s largest international chamber, the Australian Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong – together with the new Australian Chamber in Macau and the Australian Chamber in Southern China – is pleased to partner with KPMG in Hong Kong to present ideas from our international business community which paint a bold and ambitious view of the future offered by the GBA Initiative. We firmly believe that Hong Kong’s international business community has a significant opportunity to take the lead and help shape the development of the GBA. We interviewed around 30 business leaders and entrepreneurs in late May and June and have sought to reflect the wide variety of recommendations across a range of industries in this paper. The purpose of the publication is to stimulate discussion and debate around how best to leverage Hong Kong’s strengths and maximise business opportunities to deliver mutually beneficial growth across the GBA. Some other key themes we seek to address in this paper include how rules and regulations might be reframed to allow for greater efficiency and collaboration in the GBA, the barriers for Hong Kong and international companies wishing to do business in the region, and the ways in which the GBA can serve as a springboard for China’s ongoing internationalisation. It is our hope that our ideas deliver a strong commercial contribution to discussions and plans on the way forward for the GBA, which has thus far been driven primarily by governmental and public authorities. KPMG and AustCham would like to express their gratitude to all the executives who kindly participated in interviews for this report.
2021-01-14 09:32:26
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